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what is the name of biafra money

January 2nd, 2021 by

The back of the 5-shilling note is very similar to the first issue, with the picture of the four Ibo girls and the manilla being used in the same manner. But, they have zero influence over the activities of Biafrans overseas; these Biafrans put on a successful worldwide demonstration (WWD) at the close of the month of May 2005 during which they sensitized the rest of the world--from Canada to South Africa, Austria to Gabon, and from Ireland to Ukraine to the case for Biafra, pressing for the support of self-determination as a natural and moral right, and as a right ratified by UN Charter. [16], In 1960, Nigeria became independent of the United Kingdom. Despite Ojukwu’s official speech on 27 January and an announcement to the international press on 30 January on the introduction of the new bank notes, there is some lingering doubt as to the official versions of events (which can sometimes be misleading, especially when recorded some time after the events). However, most commentators on the war discounted these claims as Nigerian propaganda, seeking to discredit both Ojukwu and the French. [46], In 2010, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of Nigeria at Nsukka showed that Igbos born in Biafra during the years of the famine were of higher risk of suffering from obesity, hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism compared to controls born a short period after the famine had ended in the early 1970s. There have been differing reports as to the amount of Nigerian currency in circulation at the time of secession, but when Nigeria’s Finance Commissioner announced on 30 December 1967 that the new Nigerian notes would replace the current notes in circulation between 3 January and 22 January 1968, he also stated that some £37 million had been seized by the rebels in the east. Four days later, Ojukwu unilaterally declared the independence of the Republic of Biafra, citing the Easterners killed in the post-coup violence as reasons for the declaration of independence. remembered as the one in which a British government, for the first… A military coup occurred during which a mixed but predominantly Igbo group of army officers assassinated 30 political leaders, including Nigeria's Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, and the Northern premier, Sir Ahmadu Bello. Our new currency notes, along with our new postage stamps, will be issued to the public on January 29, 1968.’ (Ojukwu, 1969). – The palm tree was important because of its economic significance to Biafra – next to oil, products from the palm trees were the most valuable exports from the region prior to the new republic being declared. Because the notes are very common there is a tendency amongst collectors to ignore them. One of the first institutions to be created by the republican government was the Bank of Biafra, which was accomplished under ‘Decree No. Pronunciation of Biafra with 2 audio pronunciations, 8 translations, 13 sentences and more for Biafra. While the coup was unsuccessful, it resulted in the deaths of the Prime Minister of Nigeria, the Premiers of the Northern and Western Regions, the federal Minister of Finance, and a number of senior army officers. Three major rivers flow from Biafra into the Gulf of Guinea: the Imo River, the Cross River and the Niger River.[31]. The sale of undelivered notes included remainders as well as notes in issued form. – Mezu, S. Okechukwu (1971) Behind the Rising Sun, Heinemann, London. Many impatient people surrendered their Biafran notes to speculators who were purchasing them at fifty Biafran pounds to one Nigerian pound. Look at how money kept multiplying inside my bag now. It is early June 2005. (Although the refinery, if that is what it is, may well have been the one built by the Biafrans at Uzoakoli following their loss of access to Port Harcourt and the coast.) This is due to two main reasons – firstly, such a matter becomes of secondary importance in the struggle of a war-torn country, and secondly, it appears that Ojukwu played his hand on this matter quite close to his chest. [34], At the beginning of the war Biafra had 3,000 soldiers, but at the end of the war, the soldiers totalled 30,000. The Federal High Court, Abuja has fixed 25 February 2019 for hearing the suit. However they are an intriguing set of notes and will provide a collector with a complete set of a ‘country’ for an affordable price. [5] Médecins Sans Frontières also originated in response to the suffering. Not only was Nigeria taking steps to halt the flow of currency from Biafra, steps were also being taken to introduce a new series of bank notes which would be unavailable to the Biafrans. Today. 19. (This occurrence being due to insufficient Biafran notes being delivered to replace the Nigerian currency, which had been extracted from circulation.). [10] In 1953 a similar riot occurred in Kano later. 3 of 1967’ (also known as the ‘Bank of Biafra Decree, 1967’). GA to GW  (except GI & GO)      19 million, £1   BA to BZ  (except BI & BO)      24 million, CA to CZ  (except CI & CO)      24 million, DA to DX  (except DI & DO)      22 million, £5   WA to WF                         6 million, £10   ZA to ZC                         3 million. [Accessed 5 Oct. 2016] Vanguard. When a foreign journalist, Michael Mok of ‘Life’ magazine, asked a nun working with the Biafrans whether he could make a cash donation to help the starving children, he was told that cash would be useless, as there was nothing left to buy in Biafra. Meanwhile, the popularity of the originally planned Sovereign National Conference (SNC) of Ethnic Nations living in Nigeria (which Obasanjo tried now to preempt after initially and all along vigorously and unsuccessfully opposing) is rising. While this amount may seem large, it must be remembered that Biafra had a population of 14 million, and the amount in circulation would equate to £10 per person at the most optimistic estimate. Depending on which direction the code is read, the marks on the 5–shilling notes can be decoded as: ‘E T E M N E N I R’ or ‘R I A E A M E T E’, ‘M T E M N E N I W’ or ‘G I A E A M E T M’, (The leading and trailing codes may be truncated, and these particular letters may not be correct. Post-war events and nationalist movement of Biafra, Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), approximately 30,000 Igbo were killed in the north, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Nigerian Civil War#International involvement, "Biafra at 50 and the birth of Emergency Public Health", "Lest we forget the starvation of Biafra", "Group sues FG over abandoned property, others", "Nigeria security forces extort N100 billion in Southeast in three years", "Operation 'Aure': The northern military counter-rebellion of July 1966", "Nigeria: The men who may be President (1)", "The Douglas A/B-26 Invader - Biafran Invaders", "Hypertension, diabetes and overweight: Looming legacies of the Biafran famine", "Nigeria: Those born during Biafra famine are susceptible to obesity, study finds", First and second generation impacts of the Biafran war, "Resurgent ethno-nationalism and the renewed demand for Biafra in south-east Nigeria", "Dream of free Biafra revives in southeast Nigeria", "The Nigeria–Biafra war: Postcolonial conflict and the question of genocide", "Half a century after the war, angry Biafrans are agitating again", "Chronicles of brutality in Nigeria 2000–2006", "MASSOB launches "Biafran Int'l Passport" to celebrate 10th anniversary", "Court determines suit between Nigeria, Biafra on Sept 22", "Uwazuruike reveals why he sacked Kanu from MASSOB", "Radio Biafra container with massive transmitter found in Nnamdi Kanu's village", "Nigeria separatist resurfaces in Israel", "FG files fresh treason charges against Nnamdi Kanu", "African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights", "Nigeria: At least 150 peaceful pro-Biafra activists killed in chilling crackdown", "Amnesty accuses Nigerian army of killing at least 17 unarmed Biafran separatists", "Troops clash with militants, pirates in Niger delta creeks", "Police detain Biafra Youth League leader in Calabar", "Biafra anglophone secession tension heightens in boarder towns", "Southern Cameroun joins IPOB in Biafra struggle", "Biafra National Council inauguration; police arrest 100 Youth League members in Yenegoa", "Police strikes as Asari Dokubo inaugurates Biafra National Council, arrest Biafra youths", "Biafra: Police free 100 agitators arrested during meeting with Asari Dokubo", "Court fixes February to hear suit seeking Biafra republic", "Guam: Territory to be inducted into UNPO", "Stuart A. So, on 30 May 1967, the Eastern Region was declared an independent republic by Lieutenant-Colonel Ojukwu. (Titled men are part of traditional societies or brotherhoods.). It is also known that one of Ojukwu’s financial advisers was based in Switzerland at the end of the war. It appeared that the Eastern Region was forcing the hand of the central government – so in an effort to coerce them back under federal control, Lagos began to impose an economic blockade. During the war Biafra reported terrific atrocities by the Nigerians against her people, and reports of starvation which cost hundreds of thousands of Biafran lives became widespread. [34] The new currency went public on 28 January 1968, and the Nigerian pound was not accepted as an exchange unit. It is probable that the two million Nigerian pounds captured in Benin were used by the Biafrans to finance their war effort. (Most types of paper have a high timber pulp content, and are treated with agents which brighten the paper and produce a surface which fluoresces under ultra-violet light. The bill feels cheap; the names of the officials are uninspired (“Governor” is okay, but “Director”? It is believed that the Northern Region undertook the coup with the main aim of secession, however British diplomats in Lagos (the Nigerian capital) convinced the new leaders that they should seek unity under ‘one Nigeria’. ether they were brought back to Lagos by Nigerian soldiers, or by speculators in Nigerian currency who may have bought them at a discount from the Biafrans. The massacres, not surprisingly, created much fear amongst the Ibos living outside the Eastern Region, and in the weeks following the massacres (September 1966) some two million Ibos gave up their homes and businesses to seek refuge in their eastern homelands. Whatev! With the short time at our disposal, we could only produce notes in denominations of £1 and 5/-; we could not produce coins. The Bank of Biafra Decree also stated that all property held in the republic by the Central Bank of Nigeria was to be transferred to the Bank of Biafra. [44] During the crisis, French medical volunteers, in addition to Biafran health workers and hospitals, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. By that same decree, Nigeria currency notes will cease to be legal tender in Biafra. The cases were due to be loaded on a flight to Accra in Ghana. In his ‘Diary of Events’ Gen. Ojukwu makes the following entry: ‘August 13 [1968]: The Hank Wharton Plot, hatched by British government and American CIA to sabotage Biafra and help Nigeria to carry through her ‘final thrust’ into Biafran heartland. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}6°27′N 7°30′E / 6.450°N 7.500°E / 6.450; 7.500. Another external source of revenue that was rumoured to have come to the Biafrans, was an advance of six million pounds against the promise of mineral rights. The prefixes commenced with a letter that was assigned to the denomination, followed by a second letter that cycled through the alphabet from ‘A’ to ‘Z’; although the letters ‘I’ and ‘O’ were not used due to their similarity with the numerals one and zero. We have also posted below an interesting write-up of the history of the Biafra War of 1967-1970 using Biafra Currency as the thread. Prior to the war, Ojukwu had expressed the desire for a loose association of states which would include the Nigerian regions (as separate states) and its neighbours such as Togo and Dahomey (Benin). Another version states that one plane was forced to jettison much of its cargo, including over half the bank notes it was carrying, into the Atlantic while flying along the coast. Kudos for calling it … That name Biafra for them is just like a taboo, that’s the name they don’t like to be men­tioned. An early institution created by the Biafran government was the Bank of Biafra, accomplished under "Decree No. From April 1967 payments to federal-owned concerns (and employees) were stopped, import licenses to the region were with-held, and all foreign exchange standing in credit of the regional government was seized. IPOB States Commitment To Restoring Biafra Sovereignty (November 25, 2018) In response to the arrest of some members of IPOB , the group has reiterated its commitment towards restoring Biafra sovereignty through peaceful and democratic process, stressing it would not be deterred by confrontations with security agents. While the continued acceptance of old Nigerian notes encouraged the continued activities by smugglers, by January 1969 the old Nigerian Pound had become almost unacceptable on the black market, worth only the merest fraction of its face value. Published on 31 October 2019, the article was shared on other news sites and on Facebook. [29], The FMG attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967. However, the first numeral in the serial number for all notes of the second issue is always zero. Nigeria is writhing her way through the throes of imminent collapse. New currency was introduced. Despite many early successes, Biafra was mostly on the back foot during the conflict; and, as well as defending itself, had to support the millions of refugees who had returned to the region after the massacres. The very name of his former group, Dead Kennedys, created outrage when the band rose through the punk ranks 40 years ago, but the singer wasn’t just out for shock value. There were only two denominations in the first issue (five shillings and one pound), and according to Dr. Okigbo in his statement of 1 February the reason for this was the desire for the Biafrans to deflate their economy – although the reality would appear to be insufficient planning. For the first series, there are only two known serial number prefixes, while for the second series there are four prefixes. This administration of the Nigerian federal government was widely perceived to be corrupt. Keep in mind that MASSOB is a non-violent organization. It has also been suggested that the money ultimately fell into the hands of Nigerian soldiers who failed to declare their discovery. During the later half of 1968 the Central Bank of Nigeria announced they would exchange up to £30 per person and £500 for commercial enterprises in old Nigerian and Biafran currencies. "[49], The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) emerged in 1999 as a nonviolent and Biafran nationalist group, associated with Igbo nationalism. However the ‘Alo’ makes its reappearance on the back of the 5-pound note, this time having a white disc with the coat of arms laying over its shaft. fty thousand. When the Nigerians announced that they would no longer redeem bank notes exported from Nigeria after August 1967, the Biafrans worked quickly to gather bank notes remaining in circulation so that they could be converted into precious foreign exchange. The Northerners were at odds with this agreement that was known as the Aburi Accords; Obafemi Awolowo, the leader of the Western Region warned that if the Eastern Region seceded, the Western Region would also, which persuaded the northerners. The present difficulties started when early last year [1968] Nigeria, on the advice of Whitehall, suddenly decided on its wicked and diabolical plan to dispossess our people of their wealth by means of the notorious currency switch. Chimaobi Nwaiwu and Ifunanya Ozougwu. Early inventory included four World War II American bombers: two B-25 Mitchells, two B-26 Invaders (Douglas A-26) (one piloted by Zumbach),[39] a converted Douglas DC-3[40] and one British de Havilland Dove. Money Rituals without any side effects or blood shades! Under the decree, the central office of the Bank of Biafra was to be in Enugu, which was the capital of the Republic. The leaders of this movement were close to the Military Governor, and from late 1966 it seems that plans were being put in place for the Eastern Region to secede. June 21 2020 | Radio Biafra B ack in the days in high school, we students hardly concentrate on related borrowed culture of adopting a new course like borrowing of courses like anthropology and geography; students always gave one excuse or the other why the course wasn’t necessary. Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, is a subsumed state in West Africa that existed from May 1967 to January 1970 and also before the creation of Nigeria by Britain. In 2009, MASSOB leader Chief Uwazuruike launched an unrecognized "Biafran International Passport" and also launched a Biafra Plate Number in 2016 in response to persistent demand by some Biafran sympathizers in the diaspora and at home. Remainders are available only for the second series (with the apparent exception of the 10-shilling note which has not been positively recorded), and can be recognised by the lack of serial numbers – which are to be found (if present) in the top right and bottom left on the front of the notes. In addition to the notes that circulated in Biafra, and those which were dumped into the sea (first series), there were also thousands of undelivered notes that survived the war. Cargoes of arms and ammunition bought by Biafra are dumped into the sea during airflight. I am worried by the news that the Federal Government, because of shortage of funds for its services, has authorised the printing of a large quantity of unbacked notes for circulation. This desperate method of raising foreign exchange supposedly lasted only a brief period of time. It appeared on their flag, their coins and bank notes, on military insignia, and it gave rise to the title of their national anthem, Land of the Rising Sun. The Biafrans, on the other hand, claimed that by the end of January 1968 they had collected more than £53 million. Although reports had appeared in the international press as early as June 1967 that Biafra intended to issue its own bank notes, it was not until 1968 that the first bank notes were introduced. These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organisation was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritise the welfare of victims. – Mok, Michael (1969) Biafra Journal, Time-Life Books, New York. The Republic of Biafra was a unitary republic administered under emergency measures. Paragraph 8 of the decree states: ‘Currency notes and coins of the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall remain legal tender in the Republic of Biafra until such further day as the Military Governor may specify.’, ‘The Bank shall maintain existing parity of the Nigerian pound.’. He released on bail on 24 April 2017 after spending more than 19 months without trial of his treason charges. These are boys who want to take people unawares and get money out of people in the name of Biafra. Realising that the currency was unlikely to be accepted outside Biafra, Dr. Okigbo also stated that the lack of international acceptance and an according exchange rate was immaterial since the currency was intended only for circulation in Biafra. The common features are the rising sun (now a much smaller representation), the palm tree, the names of the Republic and the Bank, a white disc to the right of the note, and patterns imitating engine work surrounding the note. [24], After returning to Nigeria, the federal government reneged on the agreement and unilaterally declared the creation of several new states including some that gerrymandered the Igbos in Biafra. Nigeria had quickly become aware of the movement of currency from Biafra to Europe and its conversion into foreign exchange. "Nobody on This Earth Can Stop Biafra" - Nnamdi Kanu | WATCH On 12 January more than 20 tons of Nigerian bank notes were flown into Switzerland on two aeroplanes – but only 7 tons were permitted to be unloaded. A newspaper article describes the event: At Jos in 1945, a sudden and savage attack by Northerners took the Easterners completely by surprise, and before the situation could be brought under control, the bodies of Eastern women, men, and children littered the streets and their property worth thousands of pounds reduced to shambles[18], Three hundred Igbo people died in the Jos riot. [55], In July 2006 the Center for World Indigenous Studies reported that government-sanctioned killings were taking place in the southeastern city of Onitsha, because of a shoot-to-kill policy directed toward Biafrans, particularly members of the MASSOB. It is not known whether the sets were sold at the behest of the Biafrans, or by their agents in an effort to recoup unpaid costs. It is believed that the named was culled from the Bight of Biafra which is the name of the Atlantic bay to it’s south. In the Eastern Region, from the time of the massacres, there arose a strong movement amongst the Ibos to break away from the federation. These aircraft flew missions until January 1970 and were flown by Portuguese ex-military pilots. 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