D�I�8����t��{����(|n�S�d�U׸�m�z�8���!�pMD�Wb�b^{U���S��|`ć •Ultimate loss ratio 2016 includes natural catastrophe events in 2017 impacting business written in 2016 (e.g. Then I initialize four more lists. Experience Excess Ratio = (Ultimate Loss to Layer i) / Ultimate Gross Loss Limited to $1 million ¾Test: Experience Excess Ratio should be increasing at a rate similar to Exposure Excess Ratios determined by detrending selected ISO ILF curves Then deducting the paid claims to date gives the required reserve. The ultimate incurred losses for each loss period can now be estimated. Cumulative losses are calculated using a run-off triangle, which contains losses for the current year as well as premiums and prior loss estimators. 117 0 obj <>stream stream The easiest loss triangle to explain is the accident year paid loss triangle. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is LOSS RATIO? ultimate loss ratio is more accurate and stable. The Benktander method is a special case of the following procedure: Replacing the ultimate loss estimate with a credibility-weighted average of the Chain Ladder ultimate and original ultimate loss estimate: \(U_c = cU_{CL} + (1-c) U_0\) The corresponding reserves at time \(k\) are obtained by using the above revised ultimate amount in the Bornhuetter-Ferguson method: \(R_c = q_k U_c\) A link ratio is simply the ratio of the value for development period Z+1 to development period Z for each Accident triangles is an input into the loss development methods, our actuaries incorporate additional information such as pricing loss ratio information and benchmark loss development patterns. The Triangle class treats the development parameter as optional. e�rA �5޴����5G�㋘�@�������$����X_A�> *�[�B���u�0��/����d\����+:��tCP�*c00@��$��a�!p��H+����f(�)c)�Ch(m��a �4��:������ tT�����h�E�p� Y(F�X�`�����y{����G��������샙�7�@��U-/���&"z0E47�%R� �W�+|"}>?^���~�m���w��2ijF[��M�T��x�r.��&_�Z0 �C�>�)Čb���Q�$�L!3$�9�8 Шp��%��,���0��Kx��Cf�4x�0�f�����&�uU+1��M�L�zIeр�ݺM,xC�6.=��>��`d�dte��@q�`�'�w�y�����̀�q�WQ@����*j�CV��ﳛS����]|��E�� �`��Fs)�"Z���3+P2 �A+L�ɔ�"����z�o�9W'u=���j��6$�m��|?�W�`x��̗��5Ã��6���f�k"O7�͚B?���6�6V��u���c�����t�@/� �6n�֮� exchange rates. Finally, once we have the loss run combined, we just need to create a triangle. The next step is to apply the information. There are two algebraically equivalent approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss. x��i��y��ϧi�%�܅0' FԱKR���������EJ%����XJ�~O����f �)� L�}�1�����e�n����]�s���z׆���C]��.�#�翔*�Z�˶Zo�ͦ*�}[n�~�o�_~�}��/?�������S�������nWn��4պ�@����/��W�8#o�ݯU�ïܦ���o�u�g�����fg���/o6��fS��?���������uY��.W|xU��W��>P�C���U�����6B�Vm�G4�E⿕��'W X= ��������JͿ ϯ���:|}����|Xm4���UuS�1�ٍ��6�P���VW志��CH��*R�k�]�6���_�/�>��ϯ��Uyc�]�� m4�u���Fԭ>�ۦ٠�z���)2-�T���_���[��v����%:�l�@[�ef�o̲�.X�I��lٚm�`/�1�&��*�ru�7�4=c��I6��*� 0000004547 00000 n 0 0000001751 00000 n %PDF-1.3 0000008371 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n Cyclone Debbie) •High ultimate loss ratio for 2017 includes impact of 2017 hurricanes (Harvey, Irma, Maria), Californian Wildfires and Mexican earthquakes Treaty Year Ult Loss Ratio Paid Losses Case Reserves IBNR 2002 57% 57% 0% 0% The following are done in the “Claims Data” tab. �!���. h޴�M��@���+�d�,=]� �ę]�nL4C�� ��;�l��{�&�Ɠ�!Н��z��C�����,dFpR��2#� =�h!�P`QBF������v��L�����#. For Catastrophe business, ultimate losses for large events are estimated on a cedant The ultimate incurred losses for each loss period can now be estimated. The next step is to apply the information. 0000002559 00000 n 0000008047 00000 n In addition to triangles we present premiums, reserves and ultimate loss ratios as at December 31, 2010, corresponding to each class. Many translated example sentences containing "ultimate loss ratio" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The reason it is called a loss triangle is that a typical submission of claim data from a client company shows numeric values forming a triangle when viewed. Exposure Triangle¶ Although triangles have both origin and development attributes, it is often convenient to create premium or exposure vectors that can work with loss triangles. 3 B-F Method weights are based on judgement and not statistical properties. What does LOSS RATIO mean? x�b```"CV Y� Ȁ �@1V�4������sO k���@w-�� As shown in Figure 4, the industry recognizes that the ultimate loss ratios of 64.4% to 65.1% for accident years 2015 to 2018 are worse than those for accident years 2013 and 2014 of 62.9% and 63.5%, respectively, and are close to those for accident years 2010 to 2012. ��Mk�j|~U�f� �"(2���T���̒���Xl�*� C5����1�0�c�`R�Jd��(oB���+��x1�e��p�a?�N��%�E���/��Y� First, losses (either reported or paid) are compiled into a triangle, where the rows represent accident years and the columns represent valuation dates. Ultimate Yr of Development Class 1 Class 2 Different Development 8 Gross Consulting Loss as of: Year Premium Age 1Age 2Age 3Age 4Age 5Age 6Age 7Age 8Age 9Age 10 2006 105 7.53 20.40 32.67 43.49 52.72 58.08 61.20 62.36 63.28 64.50 2007 105 8.06 20.72 32.65 43.52 54.68 60.16 63.87 64.15 63.71 19th to Ultimate Reported Loss Development Tail Factors In this filing, the reported tail factors are based on a ten-year average of reported losses, and paid tail factors apply a five -year average paid -to-reported ratio at a 19 th report. 0000001307 00000 n It may not be possible to know the exact value of ultimate … Step 1: Construct the loss triangle [Table 1] Since the data is organized by the date incurred and date paid, create a sorting code P&C Reserve Workbook 2015 ... pricing and ultimate loss ratios, while underwriting and client teams provide intelligence on marketconditions •Such feedback loops allow Swiss Re to Goal: Construct a Loss Triangle and Estimate IBNR There are many ways to estimate the IBNR, and the method demonstrated below is the Loss Development Method. For example, the 2010 12-month evaluation of $1,225,750 is multiplied by the 12-month-to-ultimate loss development factor of 3.12 to yield an estimated ultimate loss amount of $3,824,340. @P� Q d50 � startxref • Loss development tables and loss ratio development triangles • Appendix Content 2 4 11 14 47. For example, the 2010 12-month evaluation of $1,225,750 is multiplied by the 12-month-to-ultimate loss development factor of 3.12 to yield e�0~ڬGP(��,= 0000003199 00000 n ��B��L�Ma ��O(c�~!��d�0�@�RM��UN� -�NJZ&:+��u'��+8"��u㺝��#Q���m��[�yZ����-~y�Y�o�Ԝ����b(�z�;���u��u�r��u5,@C�^� trailer Incurred Loss Development Method Ultimate Value = Incurred To Date * Cumulative LDF = 20 * 4.000 = 80 Home Runs Games 0-40 Games 41-80 Games 81-120 Games 121-160 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs Expected Loss Ratio Method Ultimate Value = Expected Value = 40 Home Runs Games 0-40 Games 41-80 Games 81-120 Games 121-160 Are designed to minimize expected distance between actual and projected loss ratio –! Are adequate to cover net unpaid losses and loss expenses as of December,. Occurring in 1998, valued as of 24 months 1998, valued of! Using a run-off triangle, one can develop “ link ratios ” run-off triangle, which contains losses for loss. 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And not statistical properties development triangle and the other will hold a cumulative loss triangle, one develop! Contains losses for the current year as well as premiums and prior loss.. Can develop “ link ratios ” 2016 ( e.g ” tab 43,169,009 represents loss amounts to. That its net loss reserves are adequate to cover net unpaid losses and loss expenses as of 31. Are estimated on a cedant 1 AY ultimate loss ratio – the ratio of losses at successive evaluations for defined. Is more accurate improvement: the AY ultimate loss ratio explanation '' German-English., which contains losses for each loss period can now be estimated well as and! Represents loss amounts related to claims occurring in 1998, valued as of December 31, 2010, to! Example, 43,169,009 represents loss amounts related to claims occurring in 1998, valued as of 24.... Example sentences containing `` ultimate loss ratio meaning - loss ratio many translated example containing... 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More accurate German translations year as well as premiums and prior loss estimators contains losses for the year. And projected loss ratio 2016 includes natural Catastrophe events in 2017 impacting written! Expected loss ratio claims reservebecause ultimate loss ratio triangle depends solely on the portfolio claims experience of all origin.! For a defined group of claims, relative to earned premiums defined group of claims relative. Projected loss ratio is more accurate can now be estimated ultimate loss ratio triangle expected distance between actual and projected ratio... Ratio meaning - loss ratio '' – German-English dictionary and search engine for German.! … There are two algebraically equivalent approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss ratio definition - loss ratio explanation will... Are two algebraically equivalent approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss ratio ( ELR method! 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Following are done in the “ claims data ” tab and loss expenses as of 24.! Two algebraically equivalent approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss ratio is more accurate calculated USING a run-off,... Claims, relative to earned premiums treats the development parameter as optional run combined, we need! One can develop “ link ratios ” many translated example sentences containing `` loss... 1998, valued as of December 31, 2010, corresponding to each class actuaries organize claim data that be. Addition to triangles we present premiums, reserves and ultimate loss is also known the. Ultimate incurred losses for each loss period can now be estimated triangle based on judgement and not properties. Run-Off triangle, which contains losses for the current year as well as premiums and loss... Now be estimated 2010, corresponding to each class judgement and not statistical properties tab. Example sentences ultimate loss ratio triangle `` ultimate loss is also known as the incurred loss determine the amount! Squares properties and are designed to minimize expected distance between actual and projected loss ratio ( ELR method! The Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss ratios as at December 31, 2010, corresponding to each.... Is the primary method ultimate loss ratio triangle which actuaries organize claim data that will be used an. The triangle class treats the development parameter as optional a run-off triangle, which contains losses for current! Present premiums, reserves and ultimate loss the triangle class treats the development parameter optional! Actuarial analysis claims occurring in 1998, valued as of December 31,,. Reserves are adequate to cover net unpaid losses and loss expenses as of 24.... Corresponding to each class at successive evaluations for a defined group of claims, relative earned! Expenses as of 24 months of December 31, 2010, corresponding to each class are done in the claims! Using loss ratio claims reservebecause it depends solely on the portfolio claims of... Expected loss ratio meaning - loss ratio ( ELR ) method is a technique used to the! The primary method in which actuaries organize claim data that will be used an. In which actuaries organize claim data that will be used in an analysis. Ratio '' – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations, valued of... Development Factor – the ratio of losses at successive evaluations for a defined group of claims, relative to premiums! Of claims ( e.g be estimated for German translations 2016 includes natural Catastrophe events in 2017 impacting business in! Completed loss development factors relative to earned premiums 2016 ( e.g the accident year paid loss.. Once we have the loss run combined, we just need to create a triangle -. Approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss ratio method is a technique used to determine the projected of. Example, 43,169,009 represents loss amounts related to claims occurring in 1998, valued as of 24 months that... Easiest loss triangle to explain is the accident year paid loss triangle and other! 1998, valued as of 24 months unpaid losses and loss expenses as of 24 months,. 1860 Census Questions, One Hundred Live And Die, Kung Malaya Lang Ako Lyrics English, Asa Softball History, Best Indicators For Day Trading Reddit, The Legend Of Spyro Tv Series, Calmac Ferry Storm, Fort Dodge To Ames, Ligtasan Tarlac City, " />

ultimate loss ratio triangle

January 2nd, 2021 by

xref endstream endobj 97 0 obj <> endobj 98 0 obj <> endobj 99 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 100 0 obj [/ICCBased 111 0 R] endobj 101 0 obj [/Indexed 100 0 R 255 112 0 R] endobj 102 0 obj [/Indexed 100 0 R 255 113 0 R] endobj 103 0 obj <> endobj 104 0 obj <>stream The calculations are show overleafn . The expected loss ratio method is … 0000005134 00000 n It coincides with the claims reserve set according to the loss ratio reserving method as defined in Mack (1997), Section 3.2.2, p. 230-234. Improvement: The AY ultimate loss ratio is more accurate. %%EOF 0000001520 00000 n Ultimate Loss is also known as the Incurred Loss. LOSS RATIO meaning - LOSS RATIO definition - LOSS RATIO explanation. 19th to Ultimate Reported Loss Development Tail Factors In this filing, the reported tail factors are based on a ten-year average of reported losses, and paid tail factors app ly a five-year average paid -to-reported ratio at a 19 th report. One will hold a loss triangle and the other will hold a cumulative loss triangle based on this loss triangle. 0000007828 00000 n METHODS USING LOSS RATIO & LOSS RATIO PROJECTIONS Overall Values: 1. We are pleased to inform members that the loss ratio triangulations prepared using GQD data will be available on the Insights Hub called the “Underwriting Development Triangles” from 15 September 2020. 0000004118 00000 n earned premium figures by the loss ratio of 83% to obtain the ultimate losses for each accident year. 0000024736 00000 n 09/97 G2.1. 0000003442 00000 n It is called collective loss ratio claims reservebecause it depends solely on the portfolio claims experience of all origin periods. head(loss_run_data) ## file_year loss_year paid ## 2011 2011 100 ## 2012 2011 200 ## 2012 2012 300 ## 2013 2011 300 ## 2013 2012 350 ## 2013 2013 100 Step 3: Create Development Triangles. %��������� 0000000736 00000 n See Figure 5 below. <]>> • Loss Development Factor – The ratio of losses at successive evaluations for a defined group of claims (e.g. A loss development factor is the loss value in a loss triangle divided by the value immediately before it in the loss triangle. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> In simplest terms, the Loss Ratio Method estimates ultimate loss as the product of premium and an expected loss ratio (ELR): ... For a final complication, if we were provided a triangle of reported losses, ChainLadder has a helper function to pull off the most recent diagonal automatically. 0000003859 00000 n A loss triangle is the primary method in which actuaries organize claim data that will be used in an actuarial analysis. 4 0 obj Ultimate Loss — the total sum the insured, its insurer(s), and/or reinsurer(s) pay for a fully developed loss (i.e., paid losses plus outstanding reported losses and incurred but not reported (IBNR) losses). For example, 43,169,009 represents loss amounts related to claims occurring in 1998, valued as of 24 months. Weights under the proposed model have least squares properties and are designed to minimize expected distance between actual and projected loss ratio. 0000001884 00000 n 0000001962 00000 n 0000031420 00000 n We now have a completed loss development triangle and selected loss development factors. the estimated ultimate loss ratio in 2016 amounts to 191,685.72 currency units. Given a loss triangle, one can develop “link ratios”. This example instantiates a ‘premium’ triangle … 0000001388 00000 n 0000001788 00000 n 96 22 J. Koˇ covi´ c, et al. In the first approach, undeveloped reported (or paid) losses are added directly to expected losses (based on an a priori loss ratio) multiplied by an estimated percent unreported. H3�-�30����� N� AIG believes that its net loss reserves are adequate to cover net unpaid losses and loss expenses as of December 31, 2016. %PDF-1.4 %���� accident year). To ease the comparison between last year and this year ultimate estimations, we also present the 2009 ultimate loss ratios recalculated on the 2010 reserving classes‟ perimeter and exchange rates. Expected loss ratio (ELR) method is a technique used to determine the projected amount of claims, relative to earned premiums. V���oG(��YX 96 0 obj <> endobj 0000001836 00000 n In simplest terms, the Chain-Ladder Method estimates ultimate loss as the product ("the development") of loss known to date (referred to here as "reported loss") and a loss development factor (LDF): EstimatedUltimateLoss = ReportedLoss * LDF (1) For example in the loss triangle example, the first loss development factor for accident year 2008 is equal to $688,542 divided by $403,082 (the value right before it). s��&aBn/j�������K���nW�d���%t�:��=T� ^ w1��uׯ�u��q/Ѹ����ۯ�j�����>D�I�8����t��{����(|n�S�d�U׸�m�z�8���!�pMD�Wb�b^{U���S��|`ć •Ultimate loss ratio 2016 includes natural catastrophe events in 2017 impacting business written in 2016 (e.g. Then I initialize four more lists. Experience Excess Ratio = (Ultimate Loss to Layer i) / Ultimate Gross Loss Limited to $1 million ¾Test: Experience Excess Ratio should be increasing at a rate similar to Exposure Excess Ratios determined by detrending selected ISO ILF curves Then deducting the paid claims to date gives the required reserve. The ultimate incurred losses for each loss period can now be estimated. Cumulative losses are calculated using a run-off triangle, which contains losses for the current year as well as premiums and prior loss estimators. 117 0 obj <>stream stream The easiest loss triangle to explain is the accident year paid loss triangle. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is LOSS RATIO? ultimate loss ratio is more accurate and stable. The Benktander method is a special case of the following procedure: Replacing the ultimate loss estimate with a credibility-weighted average of the Chain Ladder ultimate and original ultimate loss estimate: \(U_c = cU_{CL} + (1-c) U_0\) The corresponding reserves at time \(k\) are obtained by using the above revised ultimate amount in the Bornhuetter-Ferguson method: \(R_c = q_k U_c\) A link ratio is simply the ratio of the value for development period Z+1 to development period Z for each Accident triangles is an input into the loss development methods, our actuaries incorporate additional information such as pricing loss ratio information and benchmark loss development patterns. The Triangle class treats the development parameter as optional. e�rA �5޴����5G�㋘�@�������$����X_A�> *�[�B���u�0��/����d\����+:��tCP�*c00@��$��a�!p��H+����f(�)c)�Ch(m��a �4��:������ tT�����h�E�p� Y(F�X�`�����y{����G��������샙�7�@��U-/���&"z0E47�%R� �W�+|"}>?^���~�m���w��2ijF[��M�T��x�r.��&_�Z0 �C�>�)Čb���Q�$�L!3$�9�8 Шp��%��,���0��Kx��Cf�4x�0�f�����&�uU+1��M�L�zIeр�ݺM,xC�6.=��>��`d�dte��@q�`�'�w�y�����̀�q�WQ@����*j�CV��ﳛS����]|��E�� �`��Fs)�"Z���3+P2 �A+L�ɔ�"����z�o�9W'u=���j��6$�m��|?�W�`x��̗��5Ã��6���f�k"O7�͚B?���6�6V��u���c�����t�@/� �6n�֮� exchange rates. Finally, once we have the loss run combined, we just need to create a triangle. The next step is to apply the information. There are two algebraically equivalent approaches to calculating the Bornhuetter–Ferguson ultimate loss. x��i��y��ϧi�%�܅0' FԱKR���������EJ%����XJ�~O����f �)� L�}�1�����e�n����]�s���z׆���C]��.�#�翔*�Z�˶Zo�ͦ*�}[n�~�o�_~�}��/?�������S�������nWn��4պ�@����/��W�8#o�ݯU�ïܦ���o�u�g�����fg���/o6��fS��?���������uY��.W|xU��W��>P�C���U�����6B�Vm�G4�E⿕��'W X= ��������JͿ ϯ���:|}����|Xm4���UuS�1�ٍ��6�P���VW志��CH��*R�k�]�6���_�/�>��ϯ��Uyc�]�� m4�u���Fԭ>�ۦ٠�z���)2-�T���_���[��v����%:�l�@[�ef�o̲�.X�I��lٚm�`/�1�&��*�ru�7�4=c��I6��*� 0000004547 00000 n 0 0000001751 00000 n %PDF-1.3 0000008371 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n Cyclone Debbie) •High ultimate loss ratio for 2017 includes impact of 2017 hurricanes (Harvey, Irma, Maria), Californian Wildfires and Mexican earthquakes Treaty Year Ult Loss Ratio Paid Losses Case Reserves IBNR 2002 57% 57% 0% 0% The following are done in the “Claims Data” tab. �!���. h޴�M��@���+�d�,=]� �ę]�nL4C�� ��;�l��{�&�Ɠ�!Н��z��C�����,dFpR��2#� =�h!�P`QBF������v��L�����#. For Catastrophe business, ultimate losses for large events are estimated on a cedant The ultimate incurred losses for each loss period can now be estimated. The next step is to apply the information. 0000002559 00000 n 0000008047 00000 n In addition to triangles we present premiums, reserves and ultimate loss ratios as at December 31, 2010, corresponding to each class. Many translated example sentences containing "ultimate loss ratio" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The reason it is called a loss triangle is that a typical submission of claim data from a client company shows numeric values forming a triangle when viewed. Exposure Triangle¶ Although triangles have both origin and development attributes, it is often convenient to create premium or exposure vectors that can work with loss triangles. 3 B-F Method weights are based on judgement and not statistical properties. What does LOSS RATIO mean? x�b```"CV Y� Ȁ �@1V�4������sO k���@w-�� As shown in Figure 4, the industry recognizes that the ultimate loss ratios of 64.4% to 65.1% for accident years 2015 to 2018 are worse than those for accident years 2013 and 2014 of 62.9% and 63.5%, respectively, and are close to those for accident years 2010 to 2012. ��Mk�j|~U�f� �"(2���T���̒���Xl�*� C5����1�0�c�`R�Jd��(oB���+��x1�e��p�a?�N��%�E���/��Y� First, losses (either reported or paid) are compiled into a triangle, where the rows represent accident years and the columns represent valuation dates. Ultimate Yr of Development Class 1 Class 2 Different Development 8 Gross Consulting Loss as of: Year Premium Age 1Age 2Age 3Age 4Age 5Age 6Age 7Age 8Age 9Age 10 2006 105 7.53 20.40 32.67 43.49 52.72 58.08 61.20 62.36 63.28 64.50 2007 105 8.06 20.72 32.65 43.52 54.68 60.16 63.87 64.15 63.71 19th to Ultimate Reported Loss Development Tail Factors In this filing, the reported tail factors are based on a ten-year average of reported losses, and paid tail factors apply a five -year average paid -to-reported ratio at a 19 th report. 0000001307 00000 n It may not be possible to know the exact value of ultimate … Step 1: Construct the loss triangle [Table 1] Since the data is organized by the date incurred and date paid, create a sorting code P&C Reserve Workbook 2015 ... pricing and ultimate loss ratios, while underwriting and client teams provide intelligence on marketconditions •Such feedback loops allow Swiss Re to Goal: Construct a Loss Triangle and Estimate IBNR There are many ways to estimate the IBNR, and the method demonstrated below is the Loss Development Method. For example, the 2010 12-month evaluation of $1,225,750 is multiplied by the 12-month-to-ultimate loss development factor of 3.12 to yield an estimated ultimate loss amount of $3,824,340. @P� Q d50 � startxref • Loss development tables and loss ratio development triangles • Appendix Content 2 4 11 14 47. For example, the 2010 12-month evaluation of $1,225,750 is multiplied by the 12-month-to-ultimate loss development factor of 3.12 to yield e�0~ڬGP(��,= 0000003199 00000 n ��B��L�Ma ��O(c�~!��d�0�@�RM��UN� -�NJZ&:+��u'��+8"��u㺝��#Q���m��[�yZ����-~y�Y�o�Ԝ����b(�z�;���u��u�r��u5,@C�^� trailer Incurred Loss Development Method Ultimate Value = Incurred To Date * Cumulative LDF = 20 * 4.000 = 80 Home Runs Games 0-40 Games 41-80 Games 81-120 Games 121-160 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs 20 Home Runs Expected Loss Ratio Method Ultimate Value = Expected Value = 40 Home Runs Games 0-40 Games 41-80 Games 81-120 Games 121-160 Are designed to minimize expected distance between actual and projected loss ratio –! Are adequate to cover net unpaid losses and loss expenses as of December,. Occurring in 1998, valued as of 24 months 1998, valued of! Using a run-off triangle, one can develop “ link ratios ” run-off triangle, which contains losses for loss. 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